📰 Decode the language of immune responses

📰 Decode the language of immune responses


Fever, cough, sore throat – symptoms under the spotlight in the COVID-19 era – are just a few of the telltale signs of our immune system’s action on a pathogen. Whether triggered by an infection, allergen or vaccine, immune responses are governed by a together (In set theory, a set intuitively refers to a collection …) complex of cellular processes that takes place over several days (The day or the day is the interval that separates the sunrise from the sunset; it is the …)or even several weeks.

Much is known about the global processes involved in immune responses. However, due to the large name (The notion of number in linguistics is dealt with in the article “Number …) of variables involved, identifying targets to develop treatments or vaccines is like looking for a needle in a haystack. The situation (In geography, the situation is a spatial concept allowing the relative location of a …) could now change thanks to a new study by researchers at theMcGill University (McGill University, located in Montreal, Quebec, is one of the …) and the National Cancer (Cancer is a disease characterized by abnormal cell proliferation …) Institute (NCI) of the United States, recently published in Science. This study looks at a fundamental process of immune system (An organism’s immune system is a coordinated set of elements of …): the role of messenger proteins called cytokines in signals and the initiation of the immune response.

The crucial role of messengers Our immune system is often compared to one field (A field corresponds to a defined notion of space 🙂 of battle. Significant white blood cells, T cells, travel through the blood and lymphatic systems and into the tissues. research (Scientific research refers in the first place to all the actions undertaken with a view to …) of traces (TRACES (TRAde Control and Expert System) is a veterinary health network of …) of microorganisms and other invaders called antigens. To prevent indistinct attack of healthy cells, T cells circulate until they recognize a antigen (An antigen is a natural or synthetic macromolecule, recognized by …) specific; only then do they send cytokine messages to report an abnormal situation and alert the system.

“It simply came to our notice then a priori that there are many very different crucial parameters in the immune response – for example, the number of T cells produced to fight pathogens can vary, or even the quantity (Quantity is a generic term in metrology (count, amount); a scalar, …) pathogens (antigens) itself, “said Paul François, McGill’s biophysicist who led the team.data analysis (Data analysis is a subfield of statistics that deals with the …) which included PhD students in physical (Physics (from the Greek φυσις, nature) is etymologically the …) by McGill François Bourassa and Thomas Rademaker. “But the big surprise is that the only thing that really matters is the force (The word force can refer to a mechanical power over things, and also, metaphorically, a …) antigens. “

Les mathematics (Mathematics is an area of ​​abstract knowledge constructed using …) to identify key variables Until now, it has been difficult to measure the strength of an antigen — defined as the efficiency with which that antigen activates the T-cell response — regardless of the amount of antigen present in an experiment. given (In information technology (IT), data is an elementary description, often …). However, using a data-driven approach and through crucial collaboration with the NCI, Dr. François and his colleagues were able to decode the phenomenon highly variable (In mathematics and logic, a variable is represented by a symbol. It …) of cytokine production to obtain a reliable measure of the strength of an antigen. This method could be very useful in predicting the efficacy of a vaccine prototype or treatment.immunotherapy (Immunotherapy is a treatment that involves administering substances that go …).

To study this phenomenon in detail, NCI researchers, led by Grégoire Altan-Bonnet, point (Graphics) a robotic platform to perform dozens of experiments at a time when T cells are exposed to various antigens and conditions. Sooraj Achar, a PhD student (A PhD student is a beginning researcher, under the supervision of a director of …) of the Altan-Bonnet Laboratory, has optimized an automated system to collect large amounts of data in a fraction of the time (Time is a concept developed by human beings to apprehend the …) that it would have taken to do the same experiments manually.

“The cartography (Cartography refers to the creation and study of geographical maps. The …) complete of the dynamic (The word dynamic is often used to refer to or describe what is related to movement. It …) of cytokines generated by T lymphocytes in a wide variety of contexts presents a challenge and an opportunity to better understand how T lymphocytes “see” the world (The word world can mean 🙂 antigenic and orchestrate immune responses, “said Dr. Altan-Bonnet.

McGill team members then used themachine learning (Machine learning is a scientific discipline, which is …) to process the data generated by these experiments, and developed mathematical models to capture the structures underlying the data. This modeling revealed surprisingly simple rules at the heart of what might otherwise appear to be a very complex process subject to multiple variables.

A spectrum of immune reactions? The analysis also showed that cytokine dynamics contained information on the type of antigen encountered, and encoded at least six distinct cellular responses rather than the three commonly recognized types.

“This confirms the idea that the immune response is not binary ‘active-inactive’, but rather that it adjusts to a continuous spectrum,” adds Dr. François. “There may be different levels of immune response that can be adjusted degree (The word degree has several meanings, it is used in particular in the fields …) alert according to the complexity (Complexity is a notion used in philosophy, epistemology (by …) “This new understanding is likely to improve T-cell-based immunotherapy strategies designed to target patient (In the field of medicine, the term patient commonly refers to a person receiving …).

The study:
“Universal antigen encoding of T cell activation (Activation can refer to 🙂 from high-dimensional cytokine (Cytokines are soluble communication substances synthesized by cells …) dynamics ”by Achar, Bourassa, Rademaker et al. was published in Science.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abl5311

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